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This, of course, is one of the main reasons why the card providers are so keen to implement their chargeback facility and incorporate this into their terms and conditions. It’s all about protecting themselves.

The reality is that the card providers are in the driving seat and can dictate their own terms and conditions.

An aggrieved out-of-pocket merchant – auctioneer or dealer – may have to sue the card provider, for example for breach of their terms and conditions, not a happy prospect for the merchant.